Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, also called adolescent diabetes, usually begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 10% of all diabetes.
The body can not produce insulin produced by the pancreas. Insulin allows the absorption of sugar into cells. Inside the cell, sugar is burned into energy. If this can not happen due to lack of insulin, then the concentration of sugar in the blood rises above the normal value.
When the sugar concentration in the blood is exceeded, excess sugar is excreted in urine, i. It becomes measured in urine. With the excretion of sugar, more water is taken from the whole body than normal, which causes above-average thirst. Another role of insulin is to inhibit the formation of sugar, especially in the liver. By eliminating this inhibition due to insulin deficiency, the rise in blood sugar levels in diabetics has even increased.
The new special form of type 1 diabetes is Diabetes Pepper (Adult Latent Adult Diabetes). This type occurs in people aged over 25 years.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by a body that does not make insulin. This is an autoimmune disease: The body’s own antibodies destroy the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.
It remains unclear how the destruction of insulin-producing cells is underway. Bacteria or viruses that are suspected are similar to pancreatic cells, so the body “confuses” cells with viruses or bacteria and mistakenly kills them.
Genetic factors, environmental factors, and eating habits seem to affect the risks. Research shows that breastfeeding can provide some protection.
Often the disease is asymptomatic in the early stages. The following symptoms may indicate diabetes and should be notified to a doctor:
- Extreme thirst (high water loss)
- Frequent urination
- The general feeling is weak
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Bad breath to acetone (smells like nail polish remover)
- Cravings, sweats and mental disorders in low blood sugar because too much insulin is injected occurs naturally only in known diabetes. Hypoglycemia is the greatest risk in treated patients.
For the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, various checks and clarifications were performed. These include:
- Medical history and symptoms
- Determination of blood sugar/fasting value
- Ocular/ocular hypertension, kidney and lipid levels, blood pressure (to detect complications and additional risk factors for the affected person at an early stage)
- Detection of specific antibodies (repartitioning cells) is found in 90% of patients with type 1 diabetes.
- Routine urine examination
- Physical examination (foot)
What is important is the acceptance of the disease. In diabetic counseling, affected people learn how to deal with blood glucose and insulin injections (in children, parents are also involved in the consultation). You can know the signs of low blood sugar. Routine medical examinations are important to detect early complications (see below).
Insulin: Based on the blood glucose meter, the child or his treatment can measure blood sugar levels. This value, the amount of food and the level of physical activity is very important for the amount of insulin to be injected.
CSII insulin pump therapy
With motor pumps, the correct amount of insulin is continuously released into the adipose tissue through needles and thin plastic tubes. It has the advantage that the person concerned should not inject himself. Blood glucose measurements should be performed at least four to six times with insulin injections.
The pump is about the size of a pack of cigarettes and can be carried in a belt or pants pocket.
What type of insulin therapy is used, the doctor should decide.
Pump therapy may be eg. to apply:
If the person has a very irregular work life (eg shift workers).
With reduced perceptions of hypoglycemia, nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes.
In chronic pancreatitis
To improve the quality of life
But there are several factors that inhibit insulin pump therapy:
Travelers: Some countries do not provide replacement equipment or technical parts if the pump is damaged.
Bad condition of cleanliness.
The amount of insulin cannot be varied so easily, eg. During sports activities, large meals or increased alcohol consumption, the dose of insulin should be adjustable, otherwise, under or above sugar may occur.
This can cause allergies.
Regular checkups at your doctor and annual inspection at your ophthalmologist are a must. In case of complications or additional illness (eg flu), the doctor should also be consulted.
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